A wide variety of cellulose and lignin rich material can be utilise and growing media for mushroom cultivation, as well and composted organic matter and ooprtunities can be found for potential substrate in waste stream and by-products from businesses, industry and agriculture. The substrate will, more often than not, need to be treated in ways to reduce or eliminate competitor organism to the fungi of choice. There are also ways to enhance yeilds with additives and ammendments. Bulk processing of substrate can require a lot of space, labour, water and other resources. Maximising efficiency in this stage is the key to making a profitable income form mushroom cultivation and it is essential to understand the fungal needs in order to nurture the fungi through this vegetative stage of development.